Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform (TCSR) Model
See more Change Theories »Summary written by Marilyne Stains, University of Virginia, email@example.com
Example of Use
The Cottrell Collaborative New Faculty Workshop, aka New Faculty Workshop, is a 2-day professional development program for new assistant professors of chemistry. The evaluation of the workshop leveraged the TCSR model to develop hypotheses about potential impact on participants. For example, the workshop exposed participants to new instructional strategies which should enhance their teaching toolbox (Personal factors - pedagogical knowledge) and participants had an opportunity to develop and implement an active learning activity, which should enhance their self-efficacy in implementing these new strategies (Teacher's thinking - self-efficacy). Ultimately, it was hoped that these changes would impact practice but it was recognized that contextual factors as well as the limited scope of the intervention would limit this impact. Findings were reported in Stains, Pilarz and Chakraverty (2015).
Another study used the TCSR model because they wanted to situate an instructional intervention within a complex system to understand the influence of the system on instructional practices (Enderle, Southerland, and Grooms 2013). These researchers drew on the TCSR model to develop a coding schema for interviews with users of SCALE-UP studio physics classes at one institution. Using this approach, they identified factors that facilitated and restricted the growth of the course at the level of the classroom, department, university, and broader cultural levels.
Assumptions & Limitations
As stated in the name, this theory is teacher-centered and focuses primarily on individual change. The nature of the role of the larger system, including colleagues and students, is not clear.
Interconnected Model of Teacher Professional Growth ( empirically derived from K-12 studies). (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002).
Original Publication of Theory
Gess-Newsome, J., Southerland, S. A., Johnston, A., & Woodbury, S. (2003). Educational reform, personal practical theories, and dissatisfaction: The anatomy of change in college science teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 731-767.
Clarke, D., & Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching and teacher education, 18(8), 947-967.
Enderle, P. J., Southerland, S. A., & Grooms, J. A. (2013). Exploring the context of change: Understanding the kinetics of a studio physics implementation effort. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.9.010114
Offerdahl, E. G., & Tomanek, D. (2011). Changes in instructors' assessment thinking related to experimentation with new strategies. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(7), 781-795.
Stains, M., Pilarz, M., & Chakraverty, D. (2015). Short and long-term impacts of the Cottrell scholars collaborative new faculty workshop. Journal of Chemical Education, 92(9), 1466-1476.
Woodbury, S., & Gess-Newsome, J. (2002). Overcoming the paradox of change without difference: A model of change in the arena of fundamental school reform. Educational Policy, 16(5), 763–782.